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用于 ‘Suse‘ Linux 包管理的 Zypper 命令大全

2015-6-11 13:59    收藏: 3    

SUSE( Software and System Entwicklung,即软件和系统开发。其中‘entwicklung‘是德语,意为开发)Linux 是由 Novell 公司在 Linux 内核基础上建立的操作系统。SUSE Linux 有两个发行分支。其中之一名为 openSUSE,这是一款自由而且免费的操作系统 (free as in speech as well as free as in wine)。该系统由开源社区开发维护,支持一些最新版本的应用软件,其最新的稳定版本为 13.2。

另外一个分支是 SUSE Linux 企业版。该分支是一个为企业及商业化产品设计的 Linux 发行版,包含了大量的企业应用以及适用于商业产品生产环境的特性。其最新的稳定版本为 12。

以下的链接包含了安装企业版 SUSE Linux 服务器的详细信息。

Zypper 和 Yast 是 SUSE Linux 平台上的软件包管理工具,他们的底层使用了 RPM(LCTT 译者注:RPM 最初指 Redhat Pacakge Manager ,现普遍解释为递归短语 RPM Package Manager 的缩写)。

Yast(Yet another Setup Tool )是 OpenSUSE 以及企业版 SUSE 上用于系统管理、设置和配置的工具。

Zypper 是软件包管理器ZYpp的命令行接口,可用于安装、删除SUSE Linux上的软件以及进行系统更新。ZYpp为Zypper和Yast提供底层支持。

本文将介绍实际应用中常见的一些Zypper命令。这些命令用来进行安装、更新、删除等任何软件包管理器所能够胜任的工作。

重要 : 切记所有的这些命令都将在系统全局范围内产生影响,所以必须以 root 身份执行,否则命令将失败。

获取基本的 Zypper 帮助信息

  1. 不带任何选项的执行 zypper, 将输出该命令的全局选项以及子命令列表(LCTT 译者注:全局选项,global option,控制台命令的输入分为可选参数和位置参数两大类。按照习惯,一般可选参数称为选项'option',而位置参数称为参数 'argument')。

    #  zypper
        Usage:
        zypper [--global-options]
  2. 获取一个具体的子命令的帮助信息,比如 'in' (install),可以执行下面的命令

    # zypper help in

    或者

    # zypper help install
    install (in) [options] {capability | rpm_file_uri}
    
    Install packages with specified capabilities or RPM files with specified
    location. A capability is NAME[.ARCH][OP], where OP is one
    of <, <=, =, >=, >.
    
      Command options:
    --from <alias|#|URI>    Select packages from the specified repository.
    -r, --repo <alias|#|URI>    Load only the specified repository.
    -t, --type            Type of package (package, patch, pattern, product, srcpackage).
                                Default: package.
    -n, --name                  Select packages by plain name, not by capability.
    -C, --capability            Select packages by capability.
    -f, --force                 Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall),
                                downgraded or changes vendor or architecture.
        --oldpackage            Allow to replace a newer item with an older one.
                                Handy if you are doing a rollback. Unlike --force
                                it will not enforce a reinstall.
        --replacefiles          Install the packages even if they replace files from other,
                                already installed, packages. Default is to treat file conflicts
                                as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check.
    ...... 
  3. 安装之前搜索一个安转包(以 gnome-desktop 为例 )

    # zypper se gnome-desktop
    
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' metadata ............................................................[done]
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' cache .................................................................[done]
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ......................................................... [done]
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ...............................................................[done]
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' metadata ..............................................................[done]
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' cache ...................................................................[done]
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' metadata ...........................................................[done]
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' cache ................................................................[done]
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' metadata ...................................................[done]
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' cache ........................................................[done]
    Loading repository data...
    Reading installed packages...
    
    S | Name                                  | Summary                                                   | Type
    --+---------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------
      | gnome-desktop2-lang                   | Languages for package gnome-desktop2                      | package
      | gnome-desktop2                        | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package
      | libgnome-desktop-2-17                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3-10                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3_0-common           | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Common data files        | package
      | gnome-desktop-debugsource             | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop                   | package
      | gnome-desktop-sharp2-debugsource      | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop-sharp2            | package
      | gnome-desktop2-debugsource            | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop2                  | package
      | libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3_0-common-debuginfo | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3_0-common | package
      | libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package
      | gnome-desktop-sharp2                  | Mono bindings for libgnome-desktop                        | package
      | libgnome-desktop-2-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | packag
      | gnome-desktop-lang                    | Languages for package gnome-desktop                       | package
      | libgnome-desktop-2-17-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package
      | libgnome-desktop-3-10-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package
      | gnome-desktop                         | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | srcpackage
  4. 获取一个模式包的信息(以 lamp_server 为例)。

    # zypper info -t pattern lamp_server
    
    Loading repository data...
    Reading installed packages...
    
    Information for pattern lamp_server:
    ------------------------------------
    Repository: openSUSE-13.2-Update
    Name: lamp_server
    Version: 20141007-5.1
    Arch: x86_64
    Vendor: openSUSE
    Installed: No
    Visible to User: Yes
    Summary: Web and LAMP Server
    Description: 
      Software to set up a Web server that is able to serve static, dynamic, and interactive content (like a Web shop). This includes Apache HTTP Server, the database management system MySQL,
      and scripting languages such as PHP, Python, Ruby on Rails, or Perl.
    Contents:
    
    S | Name                          | Type    | Dependency
    --+-------------------------------+---------+-----------
      | apache2-mod_php5              | package |
      | php5-iconv                    | package |
    i | patterns-openSUSE-base        | package |
    i | apache2-prefork               | package |
      | php5-dom                      | package |
      | php5-mysql                    | package |
    i | apache2                       | package |
      | apache2-example-pages         | package |
      | mariadb                       | package |
      | apache2-mod_perl              | package |
      | php5-ctype                    | package |
      | apache2-doc                   | package |
      | yast2-http-server             | package |
      | patterns-openSUSE-lamp_server | package |
  5. 开启一个Zypper Shell 的会话。

    # zypper shell 

    或者

    # zypper sh 
    zypper> help
      Usage:
        zypper [--global-options]

注意:在 Zypper shell里面可以通过键入 ‘help‘ 获得全局选项以及子命令的列表。

Zypper 软件库管理

列举已定义的软件库

  1. 使用 'zypper repos' 或者 'zypper lr' 来列举所有已定以的软件库。

    # zypper repos

    或者

    # zypper lr
      | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
    --+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
    1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No
    2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes
    3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes
    4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes
    5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes
    6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes
    7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes
    8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes
    9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes
  2. 在表格里面显示 zypper URI

    # zypper lr -u
      | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | URI
    --+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------
    1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      | cd:///?devices=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB2-01700376
    2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/
    3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2/
    4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2-non-oss/
    5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/non-oss/
    6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/
    7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/source/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/
    8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2/
    9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2-non-oss/
  3. 根据优先级列举软件库。

    # zypper lr -P
      | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | Priority
    --+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+---------
    1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      |   99
    2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     |   99
    3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     |   99
    4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     |   99
    5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     |   85
    6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     |   99
    7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     |   99
    8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     |   99
    9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     |   99

刷新软件库

  1. 使用 'zypper refresh' or 'zypper ref' 来刷新 zypper 软件库。

    # zypper refresh 

    或者

    # zypper ref
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0' is up to date.
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' is up to date.
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' is up to date.
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' is up to date.
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' is up to date.
    All repositories have been refreshed. 
  2. 刷新一个指定的软件库(以 'repo-non-oss' 为例 )。

    # zypper refresh repo-non-oss
    Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
    Specified repositories have been refreshed. 
  3. 强制更新一个软件库(以 'repo-non-oss' 为例 )。

    # zypper ref -f repo-non-oss 
    Forcing raw metadata refresh
    Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ............................................................[done]
    Forcing building of repository cache
    Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ............................................................[done]
    Specified repositories have been refreshed.

修改软件库

本文中我们使用‘zypper modifyrepo‘ 或者 ‘zypper mr‘ 来关闭或者开启 zypper 软件库。

  1. 在关闭一个软件库之前,我们需要知道在 zypper 中,每一个软件库有一个唯一的标示数字与之关联,该数字用于打开或者关闭与之相联系的软件库。假设我们需要关闭 'repo-oss' 软件库,那么我们可以通过以下的法来获得该软件库的标志数字。

    # zypper lr
      | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
    --+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
    1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No
    2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes
    3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes
    4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes
    5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes
    6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | No      | Yes
    7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes
    8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes
    9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes

    从以上输出的列表中我们可以看到 'repo-oss' 库的标示数字是 6,因此通过以下的命令来关闭该库。

    # zypper mr -d 6
    Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully disabled.
  2. 如果需要再次开启软件库 ‘repo-oss‘, 接上例,与之相关联的标示数字为 6。

    # zypper mr -e 6
    Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully enabled.
  3. 针对某一个软件库(以 'repo-non-oss' 为例 )开启自动刷新( auto-refresh )和 rpm 缓存,并设置该软件库的优先级,比如85。

    # zypper mr -rk -p 85 repo-non-oss
    Repository 'repo-non-oss' priority has been left unchanged (85)
    Nothing to change for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
  4. 对所有的软件库关闭 rpm 文件缓存。

    # zypper mr -Ka
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
  5. 对所有的软件库开启 rpm 文件缓存。

    # zypper mr -ka
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
  6. 关闭远程库的 rpm 文件缓存

    # zypper mr -Kt
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
    RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.
  7. 开启远程软件库的 rpm 文件缓存。

    # zypper mr -kt
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
    RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

增加新的软件库

可以通过这两个 zypper 指令 – 'zypper addrepo' 和 'zypper ar' 来增加新的软件库。在此过程中可以使用 URL 或者软件库的别名。

  1. 增加一个新的软件库( 以 “http://download.opensuse.org/update/12.3/” 为例 )。

    # zypper ar http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/ update
    Adding repository 'update' .............................................................................................................................................................[done]
    Repository 'update' successfully added
    Enabled     : Yes
    Autorefresh : No
    GPG check   : Yes
    URI         : http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/
  2. 更改一个软件库的名字,这将仅仅改变软件库的别名。 命令 'zypper namerepo' 或者 'zypperr nr' 可以胜任此工作。例如更改标示数字为10的软件库的名字为 'upd8',或者说将标示数字为10的软件库的别名改为 'upd8',可以使用下面的命令。

    # zypper nr 10 upd8
    Repository 'update' renamed to 'upd8'.

删除软件库

  1. 删除一个软件库。要从系统删除一个软件库可以使 'zypper removerepo' 或者 'zypper rr'。例如以下的命令可以删除软件库 'upd8'

    # zypper rr upd8
    # Removing repository 'upd8' .........................................................................................[done]
    Repository 'upd8' has been removed.
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