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LXD 2.0 系列(十):LXD 和 Juju

作者: Stéphane Graber 译者: LCTT geekpi

| 2017-03-07 06:04   收藏: 1    

LCTT 译者
geekpi 💎 💎
共计翻译: 723 篇 | 共计贡献: 1673
贡献时间:2013-10-25 -> 2018-05-25
访问我的 LCTT 主页 | 在 GitHub 上关注我

这是 LXD 2.0 系列介绍文章的第十篇。

  1. LXD 入门
  2. 安装与配置
  3. 你的第一个 LXD 容器
  4. 资源控制
  5. 镜像管理
  6. 远程主机及容器迁移
  7. LXD 中的 Docker
  8. LXD 中的 LXD
  9. 实时迁移
  10. LXD 和 Juju
  11. LXD 和 OpenStack
  12. 调试,及给 LXD 做贡献

介绍

Juju 是 Canonical 的服务建模和部署工具。 它支持非常广泛的云服务提供商,使您能够轻松地在任何云上部署任何您想要的服务。

此外,Juju 2.0 还支持 LXD,既适用于本地部署,也适合开发,并且可以在云实例或物理机上共同协作。

本篇文章将关注本地使用,通过一个没有任何Juju经验的LXD用户来体验。

要求

本篇文章假设你已经安装了 LXD 2.0 并且配置完毕(看前面的文章),并且是在 Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 上运行的。

设置 Juju

第一件事是在 Ubuntu 16.04 上安装 Juju 2.0。这个很简单:

stgraber@dakara:~$ sudo apt install juju
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree 
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
 juju-2.0
Suggested packages:
 juju-core
The following NEW packages will be installed:
 juju juju-2.0
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 39.7 MB of archives.
After this operation, 269 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] 
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/main amd64 juju-2.0 amd64 2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1 [39.6 MB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates/main amd64 juju all 2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1 [9,556 B]
Fetched 39.7 MB in 0s (53.4 MB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package juju-2.0.
(Reading database ... 255132 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../juju-2.0_2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking juju-2.0 (2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package juju.
Preparing to unpack .../juju_2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1_all.deb ...
Unpacking juju (2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.7.5-1) ...
Setting up juju-2.0 (2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1) ...
Setting up juju (2.0~beta7-0ubuntu1.16.04.1) ...

安装完成后,我们可以使用 LXD 启动一个新的“控制器”。这意味着 Juju 不会修改你主机上的任何东西,它会在 LXD 容器中安装它的管理服务。

现在我们创建一个“test”控制器:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju bootstrap localhost test
Creating Juju controller "local.test" on localhost/localhost
Bootstrapping model "admin"
Starting new instance for initial controller
Launching instance
 - juju-745d1be3-e93d-41a2-80d4-fbe8714230dd-machine-0
Installing Juju agent on bootstrap instance
Preparing for Juju GUI 2.1.2 release installation
Waiting for address
Attempting to connect to 10.178.150.72:22
Logging to /var/log/cloud-init-output.log on remote host
Running apt-get update
Running apt-get upgrade
Installing package: curl
Installing package: cpu-checker
Installing package: bridge-utils
Installing package: cloud-utils
Installing package: cloud-image-utils
Installing package: tmux
Fetching tools: curl -sSfw 'tools from %{url_effective} downloaded: HTTP %{http_code}; time %{time_total}s; size %{size_download} bytes; speed %{speed_download} bytes/s ' --retry 10 -o $bin/tools.tar.gz <[https://streams.canonical.com/juju/tools/agent/2.0-beta7/juju-2.0-beta7-xenial-amd64.tgz]>
Bootstrapping Juju machine agent
Starting Juju machine agent (jujud-machine-0)
Bootstrap agent installed
Waiting for API to become available: upgrade in progress (upgrade in progress)
Waiting for API to become available: upgrade in progress (upgrade in progress)
Waiting for API to become available: upgrade in progress (upgrade in progress)
Bootstrap complete, local.test now available.

这会花费一点时间,这时你可以看到一个正在运行的一个新的 LXD 容器:

stgraber@dakara:~$ lxc list juju-
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
|                         NAME                        |  STATE  |          IPV4        | IPV6 |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-745d1be3-e93d-41a2-80d4-fbe8714230dd-machine-0 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.72 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+

在 Juju 这边,你可以确认它是有响应的,并且还没有服务运行:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju status
[Services] 
NAME STATUS EXPOSED CHARM 

[Units] 
ID WORKLOAD-STATUS JUJU-STATUS VERSION MACHINE PORTS PUBLIC-ADDRESS MESSAGE 

[Machines] 
ID STATE DNS INS-ID SERIES AZ

你也可以在浏览器中访问 Juju 的 GUI 界面:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju gui
Opening the Juju GUI in your browser.
If it does not open, open this URL:
https://10.178.150.72:17070/gui/97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b/

Juju web UI

不过我更倾向使用命令行,因此我会在接下来使用。

部署一个 minecraft 服务

让我们先来一个简单的,部署在一个容器中使用一个 Juju 单元的服务。

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju deploy cs:trusty/minecraft
Added charm "cs:trusty/minecraft-3" to the model.
Deploying charm "cs:trusty/minecraft-3" with the charm series "trusty".

命令返回会很快,然而这不意味着服务已经启动并运行了。你应该使用 juju status 来查看:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju status
[Services] 
NAME STATUS EXPOSED CHARM 
minecraft maintenance false cs:trusty/minecraft-3 

[Units] 
ID WORKLOAD-STATUS JUJU-STATUS VERSION MACHINE PORTS PUBLIC-ADDRESS MESSAGE 
minecraft/1 maintenance executing 2.0-beta7 1 10.178.150.74 (install) Installing java 

[Machines] 
ID STATE DNS INS-ID SERIES AZ 
1 started 10.178.150.74 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-1 trusty 

我们可以看到它正在忙于在刚刚创建的 LXD 容器中安装 java。

stgraber@dakara:~$ lxc list juju-
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
|                         NAME                        |  STATE  |          IPV4        | IPV6 |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-745d1be3-e93d-41a2-80d4-fbe8714230dd-machine-0 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.72 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-1 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.74 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+----------------------+------+------------+-----------+

过一会之后,如我们所见服务就部署完毕了:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju status
[Services] 
NAME STATUS EXPOSED CHARM 
minecraft active false cs:trusty/minecraft-3 

[Units] 
ID WORKLOAD-STATUS JUJU-STATUS VERSION MACHINE PORTS PUBLIC-ADDRESS MESSAGE 
minecraft/1 active idle 2.0-beta7 1 25565/tcp 10.178.150.74 Ready 

[Machines] 
ID STATE DNS INS-ID SERIES AZ 
1 started 10.178.150.74 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-1 trusty

这时你就可以启动你的 Minecraft 客户端了,将其指向 10.178.150.74,端口是 25565。现在可以在新的 minecraft 服务器上玩了!

当你不再需要它,只需运行:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju destroy-service minecraft

只要等待几秒就好了。

部署一个更复杂的 web 应用

Juju 的主要工作是建模复杂的服务,并以可扩展的方式部署它们。

为了更好地展示,让我们部署一个 Juju “组合”。 这个组合是由网站,API,数据库,静态 Web 服务器和反向代理组成的基本 Web 服务。

所以这将扩展到 4 个互联的 LXD 容器。

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju deploy cs:~charmers/bundle/web-infrastructure-in-a-box
added charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/node-app-1
service api deployed (charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/node-app-1 with the series "trusty" defined by the bundle)
annotations set for service api
added charm cs:trusty/mongodb-3
service mongodb deployed (charm cs:trusty/mongodb-3 with the series "trusty" defined by the bundle)
annotations set for service mongodb
added charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-4
service nginx deployed (charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-4 with the series "trusty" defined by the bundle)
annotations set for service nginx
added charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-proxy-3
service nginx-proxy deployed (charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-proxy-3 with the series "trusty" defined by the bundle)
annotations set for service nginx-proxy
added charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/website-3
service website deployed (charm cs:~hp-discover/trusty/website-3 with the series "trusty" defined by the bundle)
annotations set for service website
related mongodb:database and api:mongodb
related website:nginx-engine and nginx:web-engine
related api:website and nginx-proxy:website
related nginx-proxy:website and website:website
added api/0 unit to new machine
added mongodb/0 unit to new machine
added nginx/0 unit to new machine
added nginx-proxy/0 unit to new machine
deployment of bundle "cs:~charmers/bundle/web-infrastructure-in-a-box-10" completed

几秒后,你会看到 LXD 容器在运行了:

stgraber@dakara:~$ lxc list juju-
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
|                         NAME                        |  STATE  |           IPV4        | IPV6 |    TYPE    | SNAPSHOTS |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-745d1be3-e93d-41a2-80d4-fbe8714230dd-machine-0 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.72 (eth0)  |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-2 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.98 (eth0)  |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-3 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.29 (eth0)  |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-4 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.202 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+
| juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-5 | RUNNING | 10.178.150.214 (eth0) |      | PERSISTENT | 0         |
+-----------------------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------+------+------------+-----------+

几分钟后,所有的服务应该部署完毕并运行了:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju status
[Services] 
NAME STATUS EXPOSED CHARM 
api unknown false cs:~hp-discover/trusty/node-app-1 
mongodb unknown false cs:trusty/mongodb-3 
nginx unknown false cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-4 
nginx-proxy unknown false cs:~hp-discover/trusty/nginx-proxy-3 
website false cs:~hp-discover/trusty/website-3 

[Relations] 
SERVICE1 SERVICE2 RELATION TYPE 
api mongodb database regular 
api nginx-proxy website regular 
mongodb mongodb replica-set peer 
nginx website nginx-engine subordinate 
nginx-proxy website website regular 

[Units] 
ID WORKLOAD-STATUS JUJU-STATUS VERSION MACHINE PORTS PUBLIC-ADDRESS MESSAGE 
api/0 unknown idle 2.0-beta7 2 8000/tcp 10.178.150.98 
mongodb/0 unknown idle 2.0-beta7 3 27017/tcp,27019/tcp,27021/tcp,28017/tcp 10.178.150.29 
nginx-proxy/0 unknown idle 2.0-beta7 5 80/tcp 10.178.150.214 
nginx/0 unknown idle 2.0-beta7 4 10.178.150.202 
 website/0 unknown idle 2.0-beta7 10.178.150.202 

[Machines] 
ID STATE DNS INS-ID SERIES AZ 
2 started 10.178.150.98 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-2 trusty 
3 started 10.178.150.29 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-3 trusty 
4 started 10.178.150.202 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-4 trusty 
5 started 10.178.150.214 juju-97fa390d-96ad-44df-8b59-e15fdcfc636b-machine-5 trusty

这时你就可以在 80 端口访问 http://10.178.150.214,并且会看到一个 Juju 学院页面。

Juju Academy web service

清理所有东西

如果你不需要 Juju 创建的容器并且不在乎下次需要再次启动,最简单的方法是:

stgraber@dakara:~$ juju destroy-controller test --destroy-all-models
WARNING! This command will destroy the "local.test" controller.
This includes all machines, services, data and other resources.

Continue [y/N]? y
Destroying controller
Waiting for hosted model resources to be reclaimed
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines, 5 services
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 4 machines
Waiting on 1 model, 2 machines
Waiting on 1 model
Waiting on 1 model
All hosted models reclaimed, cleaning up controller machines

我们用下面的方式确认:

stgraber@dakara:~$ lxc list juju-
+------+-------+------+------+------+-----------+
| NAME | STATE | IPV4 | IPV6 | TYPE | SNAPSHOTS |
+------+-------+------+------+------+-----------+

总结

Juju 2.0 内置的 LXD 支持使得可以用一种非常干净的方式来测试各种服务。

在 Juju charm store 中有很多预制的“组合”可以用来部署,甚至可以用多个“charm”来组合你想要的架构。

Juju 与 LXD 是一个完美的解决方案,从一个小的 Web 服务到大规模的基础设施都可以简单开发,这些都在你自己的机器上,并且不会在你的系统上造成混乱!

额外信息

Juju 网站: http://www.ubuntu.com/cloud/juju

Juju charm store : https://jujucharms.com

LXD 的主站在: https://linuxcontainers.org/lxd

LXD 的 GitHub 仓库: https://github.com/lxc/lxd

LXD 的邮件列表: https://lists.linuxcontainers.org

LXD 的 IRC 频道: #lxcontainers on irc.freenode.net

如果你不想或者不能在你的机器上安装 LXD ,你可以在 web 上试试在线版的 LXD


作者简介:我是 Stéphane Graber。我是 LXC 和 LXD 项目的领导者,目前在加拿大魁北克蒙特利尔的家所在的Canonical 有限公司担任 LXD 的技术主管。


via: https://www.stgraber.org/2016/06/06/lxd-2-0-lxd-and-juju-1012/

作者:Stéphane Graber 译者:geekpi 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创编译,Linux中国 荣誉推出


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