du - estimate file space usage


du [OPTION]... [FILE]... du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F


Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all
write counts for all files, not just directories

print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in (`sparse') files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like

-B, --block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them. E.g., `-BM' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes. See SIZE format below.

-b, --bytes
equivalent to `--apparent-size --block-size=1'

-c, --total
produce a grand total

-D, --dereference-args
dereference only symlinks that are listed on the command line

summarize disk usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F; If F is - then read names from standard input

-H equivalent to --dereference-args (-D)

-h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--si like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-k like --block-size=1K

-l, --count-links
count sizes many times if hard linked

-m like --block-size=1M

-L, --dereference
dereference all symbolic links

-P, --no-dereference
don't follow any symbolic links (this is the default)

-0, --null
end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline

-S, --separate-dirs
do not include size of subdirectories

-s, --summarize
display only a total for each argument

-x, --one-file-system
skip directories on different file systems

-X, --exclude-from=FILE
exclude files that match any pattern in FILE

exclude files that match PATTERN

-d, --max-depth=N
print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize

--time show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories

show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status

show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, +FORMAT FORMAT is interpreted like `date'

--help display this help and exit

output version information and exit

Display values are in units of the first available SIZE from --block-size, and the DU_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE and BLOCKSIZE environment variables. Otherwise, units default to 1024 bytes (or 512 if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set).

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.


PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ?
matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command

du --exclude='*.o'

will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.


Report du bugs to
GNU coreutils home page: <> General help using GNU software: <> Report du translation bugs to <>


Copyright (C) 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


The full documentation for du is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and du programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info coreutils 'du invocation'

should give you access to the complete manual.