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如何记录 Linux 的系统运行时间的统计信息

作者: Vivek Gite 译者: LCTT MjSeven

| 2018-04-05 22:57      

Linux/Unix 系统管理员对服务器的系统运行时间有一种奇怪的痴迷。这里有一个关于这个主题的 xkcd 漫画,一个好的系统管理员是一股不可阻挡的力量,他伫立在你家猫咪博客的服务器之前,对抗黑暗势力。

Fig.01: Devotion to Duty https://xkcd.com/705/

我们可以使用 uptime 命令或 w 命令top 命令来判断 Linux 系统运行了多久。我可以使用 tuptime 工具保留每次重新启动的运行时间,以获得系统运行时间的历史和统计报告

这就像 uptime 命令一样,但输出结果更令人印象深刻。最近我发现了另一种称为 uptimed 的工具,用于记录关于机器的系统运行时间和统计信息。让我们看看如何使用 Linux 操作系统上的 uptimeduprecords 来获得运行时间的记录统计信息。

查找系统运行时间非常简单,只需在基于 Linux 的系统上键入以下命令即可:

$ uptime -p
up 2 weeks, 4 days, 7 hours, 28 minutes

要保留有关 uptime 的历史统计信息,请使用 tuptimeuptimed 工具。

安装 uptimed

安装 uptimed 的最简单的方式是通过你的软件包管理器,比如 apt/apt-get/yum 这些你的 Linux 发行版的朋友。

在 Debian/Ubuntu Linux 上安装 uptimed

键入以下 apt 命令/apt-get 命令

$ sudo apt-get install uptimed

示例输出:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
  libuptimed0
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libuptimed0 uptimed
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 40.7 kB of archives.
After this operation, 228 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://mirrors.linode.com/ubuntu xenial/universe amd64 libuptimed0 amd64 1:0.3.17-4 [9,050 B]
Get:2 http://mirrors.linode.com/ubuntu xenial/universe amd64 uptimed amd64 1:0.3.17-4 [31.6 kB]
Fetched 40.7 kB in 0s (2,738 kB/s)  
Preconfiguring packages ...
Selecting previously unselected package libuptimed0.
(Reading database ... 39163 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libuptimed0_1%3a0.3.17-4_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking libuptimed0 (1:0.3.17-4) ...
Selecting previously unselected package uptimed.
Preparing to unpack .../uptimed_1%3a0.3.17-4_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking uptimed (1:0.3.17-4) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (229-4ubuntu21) ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-19) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.7.5-1) ...
Setting up libuptimed0 (1:0.3.17-4) ...
Setting up uptimed (1:0.3.17-4) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.23-0ubuntu9) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (229-4ubuntu21) ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-19) ...

在 CentOS/RHEL/Fedora/Oracle/Scientific Linux 上安装 uptimed

首先 在 CentOS/RHEL 使用 EPEL 仓库

$ sudo yum -y install epel-release

然后,键入以下 yum 命令

$ sudo yum install uptimed

示例输出:

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: centos.excellmedia.net
 * epel: ftp.cuhk.edu.hk
 * extras: centos.excellmedia.net
 * updates: centos.excellmedia.net
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package uptimed.x86_64 0:0.4.0-6.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

===============================================================================
 Package           Arch             Version               Repository      Size
===============================================================================
Installing:
 uptimed           x86_64           0.4.0-6.el7           epel            47 k

Transaction Summary
===============================================================================
Install  1 Package

Total download size: 47 k
Installed size: 98 k
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
uptimed-0.4.0-6.el7.x86_64.rpm                            |  47 kB   00:01     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : uptimed-0.4.0-6.el7.x86_64                                  1/1 
  Verifying  : uptimed-0.4.0-6.el7.x86_64                                  1/1 

Installed:
  uptimed.x86_64 0:0.4.0-6.el7                                                 

Complete!

如果你正在使用 Fedora Linux,运行以下 dnf 命令:

$ sudo dnf install uptimed

在 Arch Linux 上安装 uptimed

键入以下 pacman 命令:

$ sudo pacman -S uptimed

在 Gentoo Linux 上安装 uptimed

键入以下 emerge 命令:

$ sudo emerge --ask uptimed

如何配置 uptimed

使用文本编辑器编辑 /etc/uptimed.conf 文件,例如 vim 命令:

$ sudo vim /etc/uptimed.conf

最少设置一个 email 地址来发送记录。假定有个兼容 sendmail 的 MTA 安装在 /usr/lib/sendmail

EMAIL=vivek@server1.cyberciti.biz

保存并关闭文件。

如何在系统启动时启动 uptimed 服务?

使用 systemctl 命令启动 uptimed 服务:

$ sudo systemctl enable uptimed

我该如何 启动/停止/重启 或者查看 uptimed 服务的状态?

$ sudo systemctl start uptimed ## start it ##
$ sudo systemctl stop uptimed ## stop it ##
$ sudo systemctl restart uptimed ## restart it ##
$ sudo systemctl status uptimed ## view status ##

示例输出:

● uptimed.service - uptime record daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/uptimed.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2017-11-09 17:49:14 UTC; 18min ago
 Main PID: 11137 (uptimed)
   CGroup: /system.slice/uptimed.service
           └─11137 /usr/sbin/uptimed -f

Nov 09 17:49:14 gfs04 systemd[1]: Started uptime record daemon.

如何查看 uptime 记录

只需键入以下命令即可查看 uptimed(8) 程序的统计信息:

$ uprecords

示例输出:

Fig.02: uprecords in action

uprecords 有一些选项:

$ uprecords -?

示例输出:

usage: uprecords [OPTION]...

  -?             this help
  -a             do not print ansi codes
  -b             sort by boottime
  -B             reverse sort by boottime
  -k             sort by sysinfo
  -K             reverse sort by sysinfo
  -d             print downtime seen before every uptimes instead of system
  -c             do not show current entry if not in top entries
  -f             run continously in a loop
  -s             do not print extra statistics
  -w             wide output (more than 80 cols per line)
  -i INTERVAL    use INTERVAL seconds for loop instead of 5, implies -f
  -m COUNT       show a maximum of top COUNT entries instead of 10
  -M             show next milestone
  -v             version information

结论

这是一个极好的小工具,可以显示服务器正常运行时间的记录,以证明机器正常运行时间和你的业务连续性。在相关说明中,你可以看到官方的 XKCD 系统管理员 T恤 因为漫画被制作成衬衫,其中包括背面的新插图。

Fig.03: Sysadmin XKCD shirt features the original comic on the front and a new illustration on the back.


via: https://www.cyberciti.biz/hardware/see-records-statistics-about-a-linux-servers-uptime/

作者:Vivek Gite 译者:MjSeven 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创编译,Linux中国 荣誉推出

LCTT 译者
MjSeven 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
共计翻译: 71.0 篇 | 共计贡献: 258
贡献时间:2018-01-30 -> 2018-10-14
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